måndag 14 mars 2011

Sverige mot strömmen

I Sverige är det relativt lätt att bli medborgare. Under 2010 naturaliserades 32 500 personer och blev svenska medborgare. För att få perspektiv på antalet kan vi jämföra med Österrike, ett land med ungefär lika stor andel utrikes födda och en större andel utländska medborgare. EUDO Citizenship redovisar att 6 200 personer blev österrikiska medborgare under 2010 och diskuterar varför siffran är så låg.

Since 2006, strict residency requirements (ten years of continuous legal residence), strict income requirements and a naturalisation test have been introduced as requirements for naturalisation. Naturalisation by marriage to an Austrian citizen was made dependent on a combination of residence and marriage duration. Adult family members also need to pass the naturalisation test to be naturalised by extension of naturalisation.

Since 2010, income requirements have again been tightened. Now the income to be proven for the last three years has to reach at least the level of the minimum retirement pension, plus regular payments, in particular the costs for renting a flat, energy and telephone bills and alimony payments, where applicable. A lump sum of EUR 250 may be deducted. These harsh income requirements are cited as the most important hurdles for naturalisation in recent qualitative studies (Perchinig 2011, Reichel 2010).

The decline in naturalisations, which is mainly due to the reform of the Nationality Act in 2006 and 2010, seems to be an effect of a distinct policy to prevent the access to stable residency for third country nationals. For the first time since the 1990s, the draft of the reformed Aliens Act, which will probably enter into force in 2011, foresees a withdrawal of a temporary residence permit in case of loss of income. As a permanent and legal residence of at least five years is a necessary precondition to get access to a permanent residence permit, periods of unemployment or low income might in future prevent third country nationals from access to a permanent status.

Det är alltså cirka sex gånger så stor andel av de utländska medborgarna som naturaliseras i Sverige jämfört med Österrike. Vilket beror på att vi inte sätter upp den typen av hinder (språk, inkomst m.m.) som finns i andra länder. Ett annat exempel. Lite i skymundan har Italien infört språktest för att få permanent uppehållstillstånd.

A decree requiring the immigrants to pass a language test before applying for a residency permit takes effect Dec. 9, ANSA reports.

The comprehension test of short texts and expressions will be required within 60 days of applying for residency and applicants will need 80 percent correct answers.

Those who fail will be allowed to try again, and some people are exempt, such as those with recognized certificates of Italian language skills, university researchers and people who have come to work in top management jobs.

Läs mer om språkkravet i Italien här och här.

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